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The LEGO® Mindstorms Series: A Revolution in Robotics and Learning

Reading Time: 6 Min
Published: 21 July, 2023
Updated: July 21, 2023
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Since its creation in 1949, the LEGO® Group has constantly evolved, providing fun and innovative learning tools to inspire the next generation of builders and thinkers. One of their most transformative innovations is the LEGO® Mindstorms series, a fusion of traditional LEGO® building and computer programming that has had a profound impact on learning and play. This article delves into the series’ history, the breakthroughs that made it possible, its popular sets, and its use in recreation and education.

A Brief History and Inspiration Behind LEGO® Mindstorms

The LEGO® Mindstorms series was born from a collaboration between the LEGO® Group and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Media Lab. The concept emerged in the mid-1990s when the LEGO® Group sought to integrate technology and interactivity into their classic building sets.

The series name, ‘Mindstorms,’ comes from Seymour Papert’s 1980 book, “Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas.” Papert, a key collaborator from MIT, strongly believed in ‘constructionism’ – the idea that children learn best when actively constructing and expressing their own ideas.

The first LEGO® Mindstorms set, the Robotics Invention System, was launched in 1998, marking a paradigm shift in the LEGO® play experience. It combined the beloved plastic bricks with programmable “Brick” microcontrollers, enabling users to create and program their own robots.

Innovative Milestones in the LEGO® Mindstorms Series

Creating the LEGO® Mindstorms series necessitated groundbreaking technological and design advancements:

The Intelligent Brick

The heart of every Mindstorms set is the programmable “Brick.” Over the years, its processing power, memory capacity, and functionality have evolved, moving from the initial RCX brick to the NXT brick and, finally, to the advanced EV3 brick, capable of Bluetooth connectivity and equipped with more sensor ports.

Improved Sensors

Each generation of Mindstorms introduced increasingly sophisticated sensors, allowing creations to interact with their environment in novel ways. These include touch, light, sound, ultrasonic, infrared, and color sensors.

Programming Environment

The LEGO® Group developed an intuitive, icon-based programming environment that has evolved over time, making coding more accessible for children and beginners. Today, Mindstorms sets can be programmed using various languages, from the proprietary LEGO® Mindstorms language to Python and Java.

Most Popular LEGO® Mindstorms Sets

LEGO® Robotics Invention System 1.0 (Set 9719)

Set Number: 9719
Theme: Mindstorms
Year Released: 1998
No. Pieces: 733
RRP: $200

This groundbreaking set was the first to introduce the RCX programmable brick and infrared interface, marking LEGO®’s initial foray into robotics. The 9719 Robotics Invention System 1.0 laid the foundation for what was to become a highly successful line of educational and recreational products that combine hands-on building with digital programming.

LEGO® Mindstorms NXT (Set 8527)

Set Number: 8527
Theme: Mindstorms NXT
Year Released: 2006
No. Pieces: 577
RRP: £179.99 / $249.99

The Mindstorms NXT was a considerable upgrade from its predecessor. It included the NXT Brick, three interactive servo motors, ultrasonic, sound, light, and two touch sensors. This expanded suite of hardware offered enthusiasts more sophisticated programming and interaction possibilities, helping secure Mindstorms’ place in classrooms and homes worldwide.

LEGO® Mindstorms EV3 (Set 31313)

Set Number: 31313
Theme: Mindstorms EV3
Year Released: 2013
No. Pieces: 601
RRP: £299.99 / $349.99 / 341.17€

The EV3 set took LEGO® robotics to the next level. Alongside the advanced EV3 Brick, it introduced an infrared sensor and beacon, allowing users to create robots with more nuanced and complex behaviors. The set was lauded for its increased capabilities and remains a popular choice among Mindstorms enthusiasts.

LEGO® Mindstorms Robot Inventor (Set 51515)

Set Number: 51515
Theme: Mindstorms
Year Released: 2020
No. Pieces: 949
RRP: £314.99 / $359.99 / 359.99€

The Robot Inventor set celebrated Mindstorms’ legacy while also looking ahead to its future. It offered a 5-in-1 model, each building illustrating a different aspect of robotics and programming. This set combined programmable elements with LEGO® Technic and System bricks, providing users with a more diverse and flexible building experience than ever before.

Each of these sets reflects the evolution of the LEGO® Mindstorms series, demonstrating its increasing sophistication and capabilities over time. They remain popular among young learners and adult enthusiasts for their unique blend of creativity, technology, and learning.

LEGO® Mindstorms in Play and Learning: A Deeper Look

The introduction of the LEGO® Mindstorms series marked a significant turning point in the LEGO® experience. By marrying the hands-on creativity of traditional LEGO® building with the logic and problem-solving skills inherent in programming, Mindstorms has transformed both playtime and education. Here’s a more in-depth exploration of some of its key applications:

Mindstorms as an Educational Tool

With technology’s ever-growing presence, coding and robotics have quickly become integral parts of modern education. Mindstorms serve as a powerful educational tool in this realm, offering an engaging and hands-on way for students to learn these critical skills.

Used in classrooms worldwide, Mindstorms offers an accessible introduction to programming principles. The series’ user-friendly, icon-based programming environment enables even younger students to grasp coding fundamentals and see immediate results as they control their creations.

Robotics, too, plays a significant role in STEM education, and Mindstorms allows students to learn about mechanics, engineering principles, and robotic control in a practical, tangible way. Students learn valuable lessons in problem-solving, resilience, and iterative design by building, programming, testing, and tweaking their robots.

Moreover, Mindstorms encourages teamwork. Schools often use the sets for group projects, where students must work together to design, build, and program their robots, honing their collaboration and communication skills along the way.

Mindstorms in Robot Competitions

The advent of Mindstorms also led to the rise of educational robotics competitions. Perhaps the most well-known of these is the FIRST LEGO® League, a global competition that invites teams of children to research a real-world problem and build a Mindstorms robot to solve it.

Such competitions are about much more than just winning. They provide a platform for children to develop their engineering skills, learn about project management, and collaborate as a team. These events often spark a long-lasting interest in science and technology among participants.

Mindstorms for Personal Projects

LEGO® Mindstorms has sparked the creativity of not just children but adults as well. It’s not uncommon to find hobbyists and enthusiasts leveraging the versatility of Mindstorms for an array of personal projects.

From intricate automated chess games where each piece moves on its own to sophisticated home automation systems that can feed pets or control lighting, the potential applications of Mindstorms are as broad as the imagination of its users. These personal projects provide a fun and rewarding way for people to engage with technology, engineering, and coding.

Mindstorms in Art

Interestingly, the influence of LEGO® Mindstorms extends beyond education and personal projects into the realm of art. Artists have adopted this innovative tool to create interactive exhibits and installations, combining technology with artistic expression.

For instance, some have used Mindstorms to build kinetic sculptures that respond to their environment or audience. Others have made automated musical instruments where Mindstorms robots play pre-programmed compositions or even react to user inputs. Such artistic endeavors underscore the versatility of Mindstorms and how it bridges the gap between technology and creativity.

In summary, the impact of the LEGO® Mindstorms series is far-reaching. Whether it’s sparking a child’s interest in coding, fostering teamwork among students, fueling a hobbyist’s personal project, or enabling an artist’s interactive exhibit, Mindstorms continues to revolutionize play and learning in a multitude of ways.

More Info

Is LEGO® Mindstorms suitable for beginners?

Absolutely. While some sets are recommended for specific age groups due to complexity, the intuitive programming environment makes Mindstorms accessible for beginners.

Can I use traditional LEGO® bricks with Mindstorms?

Yes, Mindstorms is compatible with other LEGO® system parts, allowing for a diverse range of models.

What programming languages can I use with Mindstorms?

The latest Mindstorms sets can be programmed using a range of languages, including the proprietary LEGO® language, Scratch, Python, and Java.

Are there community resources available for LEGO® Mindstorms?

Yes, many online communities and resources are dedicated to sharing project ideas, helping solve challenges, and fostering innovation.


To further explore the potential of the LEGO® Mindstorms series, Belle-Ve Bricks offers custom My Own Creation (MOC) kits, giving enthusiasts new challenges and opening up new possibilities. By integrating unique design elements and advanced programming concepts, our MOCs will take your LEGO® Mindstorms experience to new heights. Visit our website and check out our custom MOC offerings today!

The LEGO® Mindstorms series is more than just a toy; it’s an innovative tool for learning, creativity, and play. It blends the timeless joy of LEGO® building with the future-forward skills of coding and robotics. Whether you’re a budding engineer, a seasoned LEGO® enthusiast, or someone with a keen interest in robotics, the Mindstorms series is a gateway to a world of possibilities. As LEGO® continues to innovate, we look forward to the continued evolution of this transformative series.

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Written by Matthew Mitchell
Hey, I am Matthew Mitchell and I am an AFOL from the UK. I have been fascinated by LEGO® since I was a child. My two children are in love with LEGO® and it's because of them that my interest continued to grow, this is how I fell in to the rabbit hole of MOCs (my own creation). 

With every new MOC I saw I became just a bit more addicted to the endless possibilities that LEGO® offers. This led me to creating Belle-Ve Bricks, a platform where talented designers can share their work with the world.

And where we can create together with you, custom models.
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